Difference between revisions of "Involute"
Line 7:  Line 7:  
Alternatively, imagine you have a string attached to a point on a fixed curve. Then, tautly wind the string onto (or unwind from) the curve. The trace of a point on the string gives an involute of the original curve, and the original curve is called the [[Evolute'''evolute''']] of its involute.  Alternatively, imagine you have a string attached to a point on a fixed curve. Then, tautly wind the string onto (or unwind from) the curve. The trace of a point on the string gives an involute of the original curve, and the original curve is called the [[Evolute'''evolute''']] of its involute.  
−  
==To Draw an Involute==  ==To Draw an Involute==  
Line 23:  Line 22:  
We pick the tangents at point A and B as the first pair of neighbors. They intersect at point X. Then, draw an arc that passes point A, centers at point X and is bounded by the two tangents. We now have <math>\overset{\frown}{AA_1}</math>.  We pick the tangents at point A and B as the first pair of neighbors. They intersect at point X. Then, draw an arc that passes point A, centers at point X and is bounded by the two tangents. We now have <math>\overset{\frown}{AA_1}</math>.  
−  Pick the next pair of neighboring tangents, namely the tangent lines  +  Pick the next pair of neighboring tangents, namely the tangent lines at point B and C. Their intersection is point Y. Set Y as the center, draw <math>\overset{\frown}{A_1A_2}</math> so that A<sub>2</sub> lies on the tangent of point C. 
Repeat the steps above for the remaining pairs of tangents. Then we get the red curve, which is an involute of the black curve.  Repeat the steps above for the remaining pairs of tangents. Then we get the red curve, which is an involute of the black curve.  
Line 30:  Line 29:  
{{!}}}  {{!}}}  
−  This method does not produce the accurate involute curve because instead of using the the length of arc of the original curve,  +  This method does not produce the accurate involute curve because, instead of using the the length of arc of the original curve, we use the sum of the segments of the tangents. Therefore, the distance between the involute and the original curve is not perfectly accurate.However, this error gets smaller as we construct more tangent lines that they are near enough together. 
−  ImageDesc=In this section, we provide various examples of involutes and their equations. We will also introduce some properties of involute curves.  +  ImageDesc=In this section, we provide various examples of involutes and their equations. We will also introduce some properties of involute curves and derive the general formula. 
Line 37:  Line 36:  
{{{!}}  {{{!}}  
{{!}}[[Image:Animated_involute_of_circle.gif]]  {{!}}[[Image:Animated_involute_of_circle.gif]]  
−  {{!}}{{!}}The involute of a circle resembles an [[Archimedean spiral]].<br>  +  {{!}}{{!}} 
+  The involute of a circle was first discussed by Huygens in 1693 when he was considering clocks without pendulums for service on ships.<ref>Yates, Robert C.(1952). ''A Handbook on Curves and Their Properties.'' Edwards Brothers, Inc.</ref> It resembles an [[Archimedean spiral]].<br>  
The [[Parametric Equationsparametric equation]] for the involute of a circle with radius ''a'' is:  The [[Parametric Equationsparametric equation]] for the involute of a circle with radius ''a'' is:  
:<math>x = a(\cos t + t \cdot \sin t)</math>  :<math>x = a(\cos t + t \cdot \sin t)</math>  
:<math>y = a(\sin t + t \cdot \cos t)</math>  :<math>y = a(\sin t + t \cdot \cos t)</math>  
−  +  In the animation, the length of the rotating line segment is equal to the distance traveled by the point on the circle. This is easier to understand if we imagine we are unwinding a string. The line segment we see is the part of the string that has just been unwound from the circle. As a result, it should be as long as the distance traveled by the point of contact between the string and the circle. This property holds true for all other types of curves as well.  
{{!}}  {{!}}  
Line 109:  Line 109:  
==Properties of Involutes==  ==Properties of Involutes==  
*The normal of the involute is tangent to the original curve.  *The normal of the involute is tangent to the original curve.  
−  :From the procedure of drawing an involute, we know that the involute curve is joined by arcs that are bounded by tangent lines of the original curve and centered at their intersections. Therefore, the pairs of neighboring  +  :From the procedure of drawing an involute, we know that the involute curve is joined by arcs that are bounded by pairs of tangent lines of the original curve and centered at their intersections. Therefore, the pairs of neighboring tangents can be considered the radii of the circle which the arc between them belongs to. If we draw the involute curve accurately, we can know for sure that at each point on the involute, its normal is tangent to the original curve. 
−  :Alternatively, we can imagine we are unwinding a string from a fixed curve. Because the string is held taut, the string is perpendicular to the path of  +  :Alternatively, we can imagine we are unwinding a string from a fixed curve. Then, we know that the string is always tangent to the fixed curve. Because the string is held taut, the string is perpendicular to the path of its end point. Therefore, we can conclude that the normal of the involute is tangent to the original curve. We can also think of involute as a curve orthogonal to all the tangents to a given curve. 
−  
*A parallel of an involute is also an involute and any two involutes are parallel.  *A parallel of an involute is also an involute and any two involutes are parallel.  
−  :Every curve has many involutes because the initial point, where the involute intersects the original curve, can be chosen arbitrarily. The various involute curves obtained by choosing different initial points are parallel to each other. In other words, any two of them are a constant distance apart  +  :Every curve has many involutes because the initial point, where the involute intersects the original curve, can be chosen arbitrarily. The various involute curves obtained by choosing different initial points are parallel to each other. In other words, any two of them are a constant distance apart (this distance can be measured along their common normal). 
−  :You might realize that  +  :You might realize that not having a unique starting point for the line to roll along the original curve may result in involute curves to intersect each other (as found in the main image). However, this does not contradict the parallel property. For example, we have a circle and we unwind two strings from the circle. The string are attached to the circle at point A and B respectively. After some unwinding, the line that starts at point A will pass point B. From this point, the involute curves would be parallel as desired, because we can think of the case as a long string and a short string being unwound simultaneously from the circle. The starting point for both of them are point B . 
==General Formula for Involutes==  ==General Formula for Involutes==  
{{{!}}  {{{!}}  
−  {{!}}Since we can think of the involute as the path of the end of a string that is unwounded from a fixed curve, the length of  +  {{!}}Since we can think of the involute as the path of the end point of a string that is unwounded from a fixed curve, the length of the part that has been unwound equals the distance traveled by the contact point between the string and the fixed curve. Therefore, if the point on the original curve is represented as (''f''(''t'' ), ''g''(''t'' )), the corresponding point on the involute is: 
::<math>\vec r_{inv} = \vec r_{cur}  s\vec T</math>  ::<math>\vec r_{inv} = \vec r_{cur}  s\vec T</math>  
−  where <math>\vec r_{cur}</math> represents a point on the original curve (the  +  where <math>\vec r_{cur}</math> represents a point on the original curve (where the unwound part of the string touches the curve), <math>\vec T</math> is the unit tangent vector to the original curve at this point (the current direction of the string), ''s'' is the distance traveled by this point so far (how much of the string has been unwound), and <math>\vec r_{inv}</math> is the corresponding point on the involute curve (the position of the end of the string). 
−  The image on the right explains these variables visually.  +  The image on the right takes a circle as an example and explains these variables visually. 
The distance traveled by this point is:  The distance traveled by this point is:  
Line 131:  Line 130:  
:<math>x = f  \frac{sf'}{\sqrt{f'^2+g'^2}} </math>  :<math>x = f  \frac{sf'}{\sqrt{f'^2+g'^2}} </math>  
:<math>y = g  \frac{sg'}{\sqrt{f'^2+g'^2}} </math>  :<math>y = g  \frac{sg'}{\sqrt{f'^2+g'^2}} </math>  
−  
−  
{{!}}{{!}}[[Image:Involute_Equation.jpg]]  {{!}}{{!}}[[Image:Involute_Equation.jpg]]  
{{!}}}  {{!}}}  
Line 144:  Line 141:  
{{{!}}  {{{!}}  
{{!}}valign="top"  {{!}}valign="top"  
−  {{!}}One of the most commonly used gearing system today is the involute gear.  +  {{!}}One of the most commonly used gearing system today is the involute gear. The image on the right is an example of such a gear. <br> 
In an involute gear system, it is desired that the two wheels should revolve as if the two ''pitchcircles'' were rolling against each other. This effect can be achieved if the teeth profiles are drawn as involutes of the ''basecircles'' and the tops of the teeth are arcs of circles that are concentric with, and bigger than the pitch circles.  In an involute gear system, it is desired that the two wheels should revolve as if the two ''pitchcircles'' were rolling against each other. This effect can be achieved if the teeth profiles are drawn as involutes of the ''basecircles'' and the tops of the teeth are arcs of circles that are concentric with, and bigger than the pitch circles.  
{{SwitchPreviewShowMessage=Click to see whyHideMessage=Click to conceal whyPreviewText=FullText=  {{SwitchPreviewShowMessage=Click to see whyHideMessage=Click to conceal whyPreviewText=FullText=  
Line 160:  Line 157:  
{{!}}{{!}}[[Image:Involute_teeth_terms.jpg]]  {{!}}{{!}}[[Image:Involute_teeth_terms.jpg]]  
{{!}}  {{!}}  
−  {{!}}In the animation to the right, we can see that each pair of gear teeth has an instant contact point  +  {{!}}In the animation to the right, we can see that each pair of gear teeth has an instant contact point, called the ''pitchpoint'', and it moves along one single line as the gears rotate. This line is called the ''line of action'' and it is the {{EasyBalloonLink=common internal tangentBalloon=A common internal tangent of two circles is tangent to both circles and intersects the segment between the centers of the circles.}} of the two circles. In other words, the involutes of the two circles are always tangent to each other at a point on their common internal tangent. 
−  
−  
−  +  Because of this design, a constant velocity ratio is transmitted and the {{EasyBalloonLink=fundamental law of gearingBalloon= The angular velocity ratio of all gears of a meshed gear system must remain constant. Also the common normal at the point of contact must pass through the pitch point.}}<ref>Wikiversity (Gears). (n.d.). Gears. Retrieved from http://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Gears</ref> is satisfied. Also, having all the contact points on a single straight line results in a constant force and pressure, while for gear teeth of other shapes, the relative speeds and forces change as teeth engage, resulting in vibration, noise, and excessive wear. Lastly, involute gear has the advantage that it is easy to manufacture since all the teeth are uniform.  
{{!}}{{!}}[[Image:Involute wheel.gif]]  {{!}}{{!}}[[Image:Involute wheel.gif]]  
{{!}}}  {{!}}}  
References=<references/>  References=<references/>  
+  LockWood E.H.(1967). ''A Book of Curves''. The Syndics of the Cambridge University Press.<br>  
+  Wikipedia (Involute gear). (n.d.). ''Involute gear''. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Involute_gear<br>  
+  Wikipedia (Involute). (n.d.). ''Involute''. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Involute  
InProgress=Yes  InProgress=Yes  
}}  }} 
Revision as of 15:16, 20 June 2012
Involute 

Involute
 A colorful illustration of different involutes of a circle obtained by rolling a line around the circle.
Contents
Basic Description
An involute (also known as evolvent) of a curve is the roulette of a selected point on a line that rolls (as a tangent) along the curve.
Alternatively, imagine you have a string attached to a point on a fixed curve. Then, tautly wind the string onto (or unwind from) the curve. The trace of a point on the string gives an involute of the original curve, and the original curve is called the evolute of its involute.
To Draw an Involute
The involute of a given curve can be approximately drawn following the instructions below:
 Draw a number of tangent lines to the given curve.
 Pick a pair of neighboring tangent lines. With the center at their intersection, draw an arc bounded by the two tangent lines, passing through one of the points of contact between the tangent line and the curve.
 Pick the next pair of neighboring tangents. Set their intersection as the center. Then draw an arc bounded by the two tangents, using a radius that will make the arcs join. Repeat this step for all pairs of neighboring tangents.
The image on the right is an illustration of the construction procedure above. The black curve that point A, B, C, D, E, F, G lie on is the original curve we have.
First, draw the tangent line at each of the seven points respectively. We pick the tangents at point A and B as the first pair of neighbors. They intersect at point X. Then, draw an arc that passes point A, centers at point X and is bounded by the two tangents. We now have . Pick the next pair of neighboring tangents, namely the tangent lines at point B and C. Their intersection is point Y. Set Y as the center, draw so that A_{2} lies on the tangent of point C. Repeat the steps above for the remaining pairs of tangents. Then we get the red curve, which is an involute of the black curve. 
This method does not produce the accurate involute curve because, instead of using the the length of arc of the original curve, we use the sum of the segments of the tangents. Therefore, the distance between the involute and the original curve is not perfectly accurate.However, this error gets smaller as we construct more tangent lines that they are near enough together.
A More Mathematical Explanation
In this section, we provide various examples of involutes and their equations. We will also introduce [...]
In this section, we provide various examples of involutes and their equations. We will also introduce some properties of involute curves and derive the general formula.
Examples of Involutes
The involute of a circle was first discussed by Huygens in 1693 when he was considering clocks without pendulums for service on ships.^{[1]} It resembles an Archimedean spiral. In the animation, the length of the rotating line segment is equal to the distance traveled by the point on the circle. This is easier to understand if we imagine we are unwinding a string. The line segment we see is the part of the string that has just been unwound from the circle. As a result, it should be as long as the distance traveled by the point of contact between the string and the circle. This property holds true for all other types of curves as well.  
The involute of a catenary through its vertex is a tractrix. For example, given a catenary
the parametric equation for the involute curve is:  
The involute of an astroid is another astroid that is half of its original size and rotated 1/8 of a turn. For example, if the parametric equation for the astroid is The involute of the astorid is  
The involute of a cycloid is a shifted copy of the original cycloid. If the cycloid is its involute curve is  
The involute of a parabola looks like images on the left. For example, if the the parabola is its involute curve is  
On the other hand, if the the parabola is
its involute curve is
 
The involute of a cardioid is a mirrored, but bigger cardioid.
For example, the cardioid is given as Its involute is 
For more examples of involutes, you can visit WolframMathWorld  Involutes and Evolutes
Properties of Involutes
 The normal of the involute is tangent to the original curve.
 From the procedure of drawing an involute, we know that the involute curve is joined by arcs that are bounded by pairs of tangent lines of the original curve and centered at their intersections. Therefore, the pairs of neighboring tangents can be considered the radii of the circle which the arc between them belongs to. If we draw the involute curve accurately, we can know for sure that at each point on the involute, its normal is tangent to the original curve.
 Alternatively, we can imagine we are unwinding a string from a fixed curve. Then, we know that the string is always tangent to the fixed curve. Because the string is held taut, the string is perpendicular to the path of its end point. Therefore, we can conclude that the normal of the involute is tangent to the original curve. We can also think of involute as a curve orthogonal to all the tangents to a given curve.
 A parallel of an involute is also an involute and any two involutes are parallel.
 Every curve has many involutes because the initial point, where the involute intersects the original curve, can be chosen arbitrarily. The various involute curves obtained by choosing different initial points are parallel to each other. In other words, any two of them are a constant distance apart (this distance can be measured along their common normal).
 You might realize that not having a unique starting point for the line to roll along the original curve may result in involute curves to intersect each other (as found in the main image). However, this does not contradict the parallel property. For example, we have a circle and we unwind two strings from the circle. The string are attached to the circle at point A and B respectively. After some unwinding, the line that starts at point A will pass point B. From this point, the involute curves would be parallel as desired, because we can think of the case as a long string and a short string being unwound simultaneously from the circle. The starting point for both of them are point B .
General Formula for Involutes
Why It's Interesting
One of the most commonly used gearing system today is the involute gear. The image on the right is an example of such a gear. In an involute gear system, it is desired that the two wheels should revolve as if the two pitchcircles were rolling against each other. This effect can be achieved if the teeth profiles are drawn as involutes of the basecircles and the tops of the teeth are arcs of circles that are concentric with, and bigger than the pitch circles.
Due to how involute is constructed (unwinding the string), we know that
Therefore, Because Q′ and R′ move the same distance in the same time interval, we can conclude that Q and R move with equal velocities. Therefore, points on the pitchcircles will also move with same velocities.


In the animation to the right, we can see that each pair of gear teeth has an instant contact point, called the pitchpoint, and it moves along one single line as the gears rotate. This line is called the line of action and it is the common internal tangent of the two circles. In other words, the involutes of the two circles are always tangent to each other at a point on their common internal tangent.
Because of this design, a constant velocity ratio is transmitted and the fundamental law of gearing ^{[2]} is satisfied. Also, having all the contact points on a single straight line results in a constant force and pressure, while for gear teeth of other shapes, the relative speeds and forces change as teeth engage, resulting in vibration, noise, and excessive wear. Lastly, involute gear has the advantage that it is easy to manufacture since all the teeth are uniform. 
Teaching Materials
 There are currently no teaching materials for this page. Add teaching materials.
References
 ↑ Yates, Robert C.(1952). A Handbook on Curves and Their Properties. Edwards Brothers, Inc.
 ↑ Wikiversity (Gears). (n.d.). Gears. Retrieved from http://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Gears
LockWood E.H.(1967). A Book of Curves. The Syndics of the Cambridge University Press.
Wikipedia (Involute gear). (n.d.). Involute gear. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Involute_gear
Wikipedia (Involute). (n.d.). Involute. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Involute
Leave a message on the discussion page by clicking the 'discussion' tab at the top of this image page.